Another topic focuses on primary outcomes, such as academic performance, socialization, and future economic earnings.
A third topic examines secondary outcomes, such as teacher and leader quality associated with the student body composition of a school, that are assumed to be correlated with increased student-level academic productivity.
Wirt and Kirst 2005 provides a cogent review of the role of politics and political players in local, state, and federal educational policymaking.
Ravitch 1985 provides an overview of the failure of many school reform policies during the decades leading up to the gestation of the current standards-based reform agenda.
These district-led initiatives were given even more importance by the US Supreme Court’s ruling that race could not be used as a primary criterion in student assignment decisions, effectively reversing critical aspects of the Brown ruling.
As a result of these developments, districts have begun to look at criteria other than student racial composition to create student body diversity within schools.
For students to thrive and achieve at high levels in school, they must be interested and emotionally invested in their own learning. Because motivation, or the desire that propels one to do something, leads to engagement.
This means students are being attentive to their tasks, putting forth positive effort, persisting through challenges, and advancing their ideas and understandings with a sense of intention.
Roza 2010 provides details of the resource allocation inequities at the school level with some discussion of the manner in which student assignment policies impact school-level resource allocation.
Two historical pieces provide context for consideration of the links between the desegregation movements of the 1970s and current student assignment policies.