Gallo helped establish that HIV caused AIDS, and he contributed to the subsequent development of a blood test for its detection.
Lentiviruses share many morphological and biological characteristics.
Many species of mammals are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period.
AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection, during which time fatal infections and cancers frequently arise. Expert review of the cases suggested that the disease likely was acquired through sexual contact and that it appeared to be associated with immune dysfunction caused by exposure to some factor that predisposed the affected individuals to opportunistic infection.
The following month the CDC published a report describing an outbreak of cases of a rare cancer called By 1984 researchers working in Africa had provided clear evidence for heterosexual transmission of the causative agent, HIV.
Rates of infection are lower in other parts of the world, but different subtypes of the virus have spread to Europe, India, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean.
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Rates of infection have leveled off somewhat in the United States and Europe.
Another group consists of those who maintain a low or undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral treatment, known as "elite controllers" or "elite suppressors".
They represent approximately 1 in 300 infected persons.
The latter trend has been largely due to improved access to treatment for the afflicted.
Thus, there has been an increase in the overall number of people living with AIDS.