Essay On Traveling Europe

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For those who made their way across the Alps, Turin was the first Italian City they'd come to and some remained while others simply passed through on their way to Rome or Venice.

Rome was initially the southernmost point they would travel.

Richard Lessels introduced the term Grand Tour in his 1670 book Voyage to Italy.

Additional guidebooks, tour guides, and the tourist industry were developed and grew to meet the needs of the 20-something male and female travellers and their tutors across the European continent.

though a pleasurable stay in Venice and a residence in Rome were essential.

Catholic Grand Tourists followed the same routes as Protestant Whigs.In Britain, Thomas Coryat's travel book Coryat's Crudities (1611), published during the Twelve Years' Truce, was an early influence on the Grand Tour but it was the far more extensive tour through Italy as far as Naples undertaken by the 'Collector' Earl of Arundel, with his wife and children in 1613–14 that established the most significant precedent.This is partly because he asked Inigo Jones, not yet established as an architect but already known as a 'great traveller' and masque designer, to act as his cicerone (guide).Visiting French and Italian royalty and British envoys was a popular pastime during the Tour.The homes of envoys were often utilised as hotels and food pantries, which annoyed the envoys, but there wasn't much they could do about such inconveniences brought on by their citizens.Since the 17th century, a tour to such places was also considered essential for budding artists to understand proper painting and sculpture techniques, though the trappings of the Grand Tour—valets and coachmen, perhaps a cook, certainly a "bear-leader" or scholarly guide—were beyond their reach.The advent of popular guides, such as the book An Account of Some of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy published in 1722 by Jonathan Richardson and his son Jonathan Richardson the Younger, did much to popularise such trips, and following the artists themselves, the elite considered travel to such centres as necessary rites of passage.For gentlemen, some works of art were essential to demonstrate the breadth and polish they had received from their tour.In Rome, antiquaries like Thomas Jenkins were also dealers and were able to sell and advise on the purchase of marbles; their price would rise if it were known that the Tourists were interested.Many continued on to Naples, where they also viewed Herculaneum and Pompeii, but few ventured far into Southern Italy, and fewer still to Greece, then still under Turkish rule.Rome for many centuries had already been the destination of pilgrims, especially during Jubilee when European clergy visited the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome.


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