Thus, indicators of aggression may vary. In the Middle East, for example, a direct refusal is considered a hostile gesture.But in other cultures, raising an objection is customary and well accepted.Protracted conflict sometimes results from a clash between differing world-views.
For this reason, moral conflicts tend to be quite harmful and intractable.
To further understand moral conflict and deal with it effectively, it is helpful to be aware of its common features.
For example, sometimes people distinguish between moral orders built on rights and those built on virtues. Each one is associated with particular forms of society and ways of being human.
While a rights-based approach is associated with the Enlightenment and modernity, a virtues-based approach emerges from traditional society.
However, when two parties that do not share norms of communication [customary patterns and rules of communication] and expectations about behavior must interact, they often clash. Each party may believe that its ways of doing things and thinking about things is the best way and come to regard other ways of thinking and acting as inferior, strange, or morally wrong. Moral conflict occurs when disputants are acting within different social worlds, according to different meanings. Indeed, one of the reasons groups in conflict have trouble breaking the pattern of interaction between them is that each is caught in its own moral order.
When two groups have radically different ways of making sense of human life, it is likely that actions regarded by one side as good and prudent will be perceived by the other as evil or foolish. This is because an action that one moral order deems perfectly acceptable may be regarded as an abomination by a different moral order.When modernists carry out acts regarded as obligatory or good within their own moral order, "these very acts offend traditionalists." Inter-racial or inter-religious marriages, for example, are seen by many as one outgrowth of inclusivity and tolerance.The freedom to marry anyone is a "right." Traditionalists, however, would see it as evil -- harming their race or religion.Likewise, some traditional religious and political activities, for instance, limiting women's dress, freedom of movement, education, and/or public involvement is seen as abhorrent to modern, Western societies.The freedom to wear what one wants, and do what one wants, with no limitations, is seen as a woman's right.Ideas about fairness and images of justice can also vary among different groups.The moral positions of anti-abortion and pro-choice activists are sometimes regarded as incommensurable.For example, the terms "conflict," "aggression," "peace," "time," and "negotiation" are not value-free.They carry judgments with them and may be used differently in different cultures. Aggression, usually defined as intentionally hurting another person, is a reflection of norms of conduct, and what hurts in one society may not be what hurts in another society.People from the same culture have more or less equivalent realities and mindsets.Their values, assumptions, and procedures become part of "common sense" for them.