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Using technology as a tool for learning and developing 21st century citizenship skills: An examination of the NETS and technology use by preservice teachers with their K-12 students.The 5-year study addressed two questions: (a) To what extent did preservice teachers integrate technology into their instructional planning?They further suggested that citizens should understand public and community issues, be able to obtain information, think critically, and be willing to enter into dialogue with others and understand diverse perspectives.
Bolick, Berson, Coutts, and Heinecke (2003) reported, “Regular use of technology is infrequent among most social studies faculty members (p.
304).” As a result, most teachers graduate from teacher preparation institutions with limited knowledge of the ways technology can be used in the classroom.
Moreover, stand-alone instructional technology courses did not result in classroom integration of technologies with K-12 students.
The ISTE study also revealed that teacher educators did not model the use of educational technology skills in their teaching.
There is little evidence that K-12 students used technology to support critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making.
Computer technology is almost ubiquitous and a major contributor to the “flat world” described by Thomas Friedman (2007).Furthermore, when educational technology was available in K-12 classrooms, preservice teachers did not use the technology in field experiences and most did not work under cooperating teachers and supervisors who could advise or support them in technology applications (Moursund & Bielefeldt, 1999).Willis and Tucker (2001) criticized the isolation of teacher preparation programs from a society in which technology plays a vital everyday role.Findings indicated 85% of preservice teachers integrated technology skills and knowledge in instructional practice with their K-12 students.Approximately 50% of the work samples and reflections documented K-12 students’ use of technology in the areas of creativity and innovation, communication and collaboration, and research and information fluency.According to Moursund and Bielefeldt (1999), the principal investigators of a study conducted by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), “71% of teacher education programs in the study required students to take at least three credit hours related to generic instruction technology skills” (p. However, these courses did not provide a meaningful context for how technologies apply to and can improve teaching and learning.Nor did these courses prepare teachers to use technologies in various instructional settings.In contrast, those teacher preparation programs embedding hands-on technology models in methods courses and student teaching requirements are more likely to produce teachers who use technology in their own practice (Vannatta, 2000).Thomas and Cooper (2000) argued that college of education faculty should increase their use of technology, provide their students with opportunities to use technology, and model the use of technology in instruction. (2003) surveyed social studies methods faculty regarding technology applications in social studies teacher education.Teacher education programs do not prepare new teachers to be the change agents for the public school environment.…Just teaching them how to use computers is not enough.…Pre-service students need to experience alternative teaching and learning models and strategies as part of their own education. 4) Unfortunately, effective modeling of information technologies by teacher educators in universities is not common.According to Gilbert (1996), the majority of US undergraduate education faculty members continue to use traditional lecture/discussion/textbook methods.