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Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there. Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from 8th WWW user survey.
Retrieved month day, year, from full URL Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific website document.
Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself.
Bibliography is a specialized aspect of library science (or library and information science, LIS) and documentation science.
It was established by a Belgian, named Paul Otlet (1868-1944), who was the founder of the field of documentation, as a branch of the information sciences, who wrote about "the science of bibliography." However, there have recently been voices claiming that "the bibliographical paradigm" is obsolete, and it is not today common in LIS. Bowers (1949) refers to enumerative bibliography as a procedure that identifies books in “specific collections or libraries,” in a specific discipline, by an author, printer, or period of production (3).
Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials of the first and middle names are given.
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle.
The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should still be capitalized.
Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period.
Title of Periodical, volume number, Retrieved month day, year, from full URL Online document: Author's name. If a document is undated, use "n.d." (for no date) immediately after the document title.