As nanotechnology gains widespread application in various disciplines, it is imperative to understand its potential effects.
This is important for its long terms sustainability.
This may be an indication that nanotechnology will in future play a pivotal role in scientific and economic development (Dang et al., 2010).
Nanotechnology may be a critical solution for companies seeking to stay ahead of competitors.
Although still in early stages, this technology has signaled potential and breakthroughs in many areas such as medicine, computer technology, food industry, building construction, environment protection to mention just a few.
The many exciting products it promises have served to draw a lot of attention to it.
Data by Dang and fellow researchers (2010) shows that patent application for nanotechnology inventions in developed countries increased from zero percent in 1991 to about 27 % in 2008 and that this growth is set to continue for the better part of this century.
Spurred by huge funding from government and commercial players, nanotechnology projects continue to release more and more potential innovations into the market.
This includes enhanced plasticity, change in thermal properties, enhanced reactivity and catalysis, negative refractivity, faster ion/electron transport and novel quantum mechanical properties (Vaddiraju, Tomazos, Burgess, Jain, & Papadimitrakopoulos, 2010).
The novel properties of matter at nanoscale has been explained by the presence of quantum effect, increase in surface area to volume ratio and alterations in atomic configurations (Wickson et al., 2010).