The review of the literature provides the background and context for the research problem.
It should establish the need for the research and indicate that the writer is knowledgeable about the area (Wiersma, 1995, p. Avoid statements that imply that little has been done in the area or that what has been done is too extensive to permit easy summary.
The purpose statement should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the overall purpose of the study (Locke, Spirduso, & Silverman, 1987, p. If the purpose is not clear to the writer, it cannot be clear to the reader.
Clearly identify and define the central concepts or ideas of the study.
The operational null is generally the preferred form of hypothesis-writing.a form that states the hypothesis you will accept if the null hypothesis is rejected, stated in terms of theoretical constructs.
In other words, this is usually what you hope the results will show.In studies aiming at grounded theory, for example, theory and theoretical tenets emerge from findings.Much qualitative inquiry, however, also aims to test or verify theory, hence in these cases the theoretical framework, as in quantitative efforts, should be identified and discussed early on.For example, There is no relationship between the number of hours nontraditional-aged college women use the student union and their persistence at the college after their freshman year.Or, There is no difference between the mean grade point averages achieved by students in the upper and lower quartiles of the distribution of the Self-regulated Inventory.Clearly and succinctly identify and explain the problem within the framework of the theory or line of inquiry that undergirds the study.This is of major importance in nearly all proposals and requires careful attention.The introduction is the part of the paper that provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper.Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research (Wilkinson, 1991, p. If a researcher is working within a particular theoretical framework/line of inquiry, the theory or line of inquiry should be introduced and discussed early, preferably in the introduction or literature review.Statements of this sort are usually taken as indications that the writer is not really familiar with the literature.In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point.