Synthesising The

Synthesising The-79
We need this perspective to approach the proposal by George Church of Harvard University, US, and colleagues for a ‘Human Genome Project–Write’ (HGP–Write); the original Human Genome Project being HGP–Read.Church aims to build a complete human genome from scratch, using the clever synthetic chemistry now routinely used to make much shorter stretches of DNA with specified sequences.

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It can’t proceed without a genome, but neither can it do so without a host of other non-genetic factors.

And while genes direct many of those events, it is probably wrong not just philosophically but technically to ascribe sole causality to the genetic sequence encoded in DNA.

The article outlines how to engage in the critiquing process and explains how the literature review needs to be…

Many research studies have been done to explain the reasons for the tensions and failures observed in joint ventures between Japanese and Western multinational enterprises.

That question has haunted us at least since French physician Julien Offray de La Mettrie argued, in 1747, that humankind is a mere machine: a particularly sophisticated automaton like those with which ingenious inventors were, at the time, astonishing well-heeled audiences in Parisian salons.

That view was scarcely less shocking more than a hundred years later, when Thomas Henry Huxley asserted in 1874 that animals (of which Darwin had made humans one such) were indeed automata, and that notions of free will, consciousness and the soul were nothing more than illusions conjured from particular brain states in response to outside forces.To learn more or modify/prevent the use of cookies, see our Cookie Policy and Privacy Policy.This article examines how to synthesise and critique research literature.The main challenge, Church and colleagues say, is to reduce the current cost of synthesising and testing very long DNA sequences (0.1 to 100 billion base pairs; the human genome has 3 billion) by a factor of 1000.It has been almost unremarked so far that this is really a question of chemistry.By continuing to use this site, you consent to the use of cookies.We use cookies to offer you a better experience, personalize content, tailor advertising, provide social media features, and better understand the use of our services.Church and colleagues admit that their scheme is ambitious – they say the estimated cost could of the order of the billion (£2.06 billion) needed for HGP–Read.But the paper outlining the idea is a fairly modest, even sketchy affair that calls for a ‘consideration of ethical, legal, and societal implications from the start’.One can be perfectly materialistic about all this while admitting that to project the human into the genome is silly: you might as well project it into quarks.Our dignity is not threatened in the slightest by HGP–Write.


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